My Research Results on Search Engines
Compliments of Gordon Allen,
Discovering and Using Databases
Online Since 1982
Major Engines
Quick Find
WAIS ListServs
Mailing Lists
Real Estate-Bay Area
Real Estate-California
Real Estate-Nationwide
Real Estate-Worldwide
Countries With Email
Recognize these?
Compuserve, Plink, Damar, REDI
Major Search Engines...
Listed in...
Alta Vista
Fast Search
MSN Web Search
Netscape NetCenter
Open Directory Project
Alta Vista Direct Hit AOL NetFind Euroseek Excite Hot Bot Infoseek Lycos Magellan MSN WebSearch Open Directory Web Crawler Yahoo GoTo Snap Planet Search Internet Sleuth LookSmart Starting Point I-Explorer Jayde Anzwers JumpCity Matilda LexiConn NetGuide G.O.D. InfoSpace BizWeb PeekaBoo DrudgeReport Tradewave Galaxy NerdWorld
"Quick Find" Search Engines
PageHost (FindIt) A to Z Link Star Jumper Links (FTP & Finger) Scrub the Web WWW Worm What-U-Seek ArchiePlex World FTP
Four11 White Pages 555-1212 Inter800 AddressFinder GTE Yellow Pages Who/Where BigYellow Magellan BigBook Global & National Yellow Pages Go2
InterNIC Directory Acadamia Microsoft White Pages Microsfot Yellow Pages
Real Estate Links
MSN House and Home (formerly MS HomeAdvisor) is a national online listings aggregator focusing on site content for consumers. It partners with which is another listings aggregator is operated by, and solicits REALTORS to pay for advertising for both the Broker and individual listings. has the current links.
Bay Area California United States North America WorldWide
Frequently "down" Sites, but still good when they're "up.": True North Plug! Entrepeneurs on the Web Apollo Intuitive Web Index LinkMonster Cool Page of the Day Metroscope Galaxy Mall Business Classified Links The Funnel Web Spider WebWalker Business Cards Online Links Yellow Pages Online!
Latest California Satellite Images
Travel-Related Search Engines
Travlang Internet Travel Excite's Travel EuroSeek EuroFerret
Microsoft Newsgroups
List of Country Codes with E-mail Accessibility
This is helpful in finding-out if a country has easy access to email and internet facilities and is aimed at general email and internet users. Countries which have access to Internet or general E-mail services. The country codes have been derived from the International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 3166. A country code is taken as a top level doMAIN once it is registered at so *not* all country codes listed are top level doMAINs. At the bottom of the table, there is also a section of general top level doMAINs, based on the information available at

1. Description of codes:
- FI stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp', and internet E-mail.
- B stands for BITNET access although the address may be in internet DNS (DoMAIN Name System) format.
- * (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by E-mail. If this is not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for consistency.
- PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+)
- P stands for provisional connection. (+)
(+) This is used when one or more of the following is true:
- address not verified or lack of address
- UUCP dialup not active
- net connection possible but not officially announced
- premature official announcement of connection
- F stands for a country that is connected to Internet only via means of the FIDOnet network. It is assumed that the FIDO connection in this case is stable and reliable.
2. Networks which are not included:
Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Army) have computers all around the world. It is generally possible to assume that wherever there is a U.S. military base, there will be a node reachable through gateways.
Private company networks such as for DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.), or Sun Microsystems, for example, have nodes in many exotic locations. However the connection may take place via UUCP and cost a lot of money. Those networks have therefore not been included. In addition, those are PRIVATE networks. Many companies ( like U.S. Sprint, for example ) offer commercial services to many countries which are not readily available on the Internet. The service is VERY COSTLY, usually takes place via
UUCP or X.400 connections. X.400 E-mail is usually charged to someone and if the telecommunication carrier cannot find someone to pay for the message transfer, it will reject it. As a result, those types of network have not been included in the list. Although a user may RECEIVE E-mail from a user on those networks, one may not be able to reply to it.
3. Updates:
The situation changes from day to day. The growth in international networking is such that the information contained in this document may be out of date by the time it reaches you.
4. US sites
While there are several hundreds of BITNET nodes in USA, none have a name in the format `.US'. That's why the .us doMAIN is only FI and *.
5. .edu, .com, etc.
The doMAINs in this section are special in that some of them are used in more than one country. The doMAINs which have full internet access are marked accordingly. However, this doesn't mean that *all*
of those doMAINs have full internet access. For example, only a small proportion of .mil sites have full internet access. The same is true for .com sites, for example.
6. UK and GB doMAINs
There are two codes for United Kingdom, namely UK and GB. While UK is used for addressing of most doMAINs in DNS format, the field GB is used MAINly in the X.400 addressing of United Kingdom sites. However, there is an increasing trend in some United Kingdom sites being directly connected to Internet under the GB doMAIN. The GB doMAIN is hence a perfectly suitable Internet top level doMAIN.
When looking for further information, it is worth looking at both UK and GB for United Kingdom.
7. Where to find further information
A number of sites run on-line information databases, mail-servers, and gopher information systems where further information can be found.
Part of this site, the InterNIC database services, contains the Internet "white pages". The "whois" section of the "white pages" has registration records for top level doMAINs. "whois" can be accessed by connecting interactively (telnet, or via gopher (gopher or using the "whois" command available on some computer systems (whois -h
Registration records for a doMAIN are sometimes useful since they provide Administrative and Technical Contacts for this doMAIN and those may hence be able to provide further information.
This is a gopher system run by, the co-ordinator for European Internet nodes. It contains a lot of information regarding European IP, etc. It may be accessed either as "gopher"
or "telnet" and logging-in appropriately. It also has a "whois" database.
- GNET: an Archive and Electronic Journal
This is co-ordinated by Larry Press <> Archived documents are available by anonymous ftp from the directory global_net at ( To conserve bandwidth, the archive contains an abstract of each document, as well as the full document. In addition to the archive, there is a moderated GNET discussion list.
To submit a document to the archive or subscribe to the moderated discussion list, use the address
- BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
Bitnet LISTSERVs contain files which list all BITNET sites around the world. For a listing of all BITNET sites, in country code order, send a message to (or LISTSERV@BITNIC for BITNET folks), no subject, and the command: GET NODE INFO3 in the body of the message.
A very long file of information on all international BITNET sites can be ftp'ed from and is called BITEARN.NODES. It is more than 2Mb long.
This gopher system, MAINtained by the Network Startup Resource Center and PSGnet/RAINet contains perhaps the most comprehensive collection of information about country connectivity. It may be accessed as "gopher". For the gopher client impaired, one can telnet to and login as gopher. An important feature is an E-mail interface to access the information in the gopher system. Send E-mail to: any subject, and in the body of the message: send country/<country-code>
Example: if you want further information about Brazil (country code BR) send country/BR
8. Archiving
Once released, this document is archived in a number of archive sites around the world. Amongst them: ( directory: /pub/usenet/news.answers/mail ( directory: /pub/archive2/netnews/news.answers/mail
# ( directory: /usenet/news.answers/mail
# ( directory: /pub/uunet/usenet/news.answers/mail
# directory: /pub/faq/mail
(#) those may not be accessible via Bear access or direct PC access in some cases.
Via listserver request: with the command: get faq mail/country-codes
All FAQs are also available via or listserv@blekul11.bitnet . For an index of all FAQs available, put the command GET NETFAQS FILELIST in the body of your message.
The document is also retrievable by E-mail from by sending an E-mail to , blank subject line and the command: send usenet/news.answers/mail/country-codes
The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using an experimental simple mail-server that I have setup from my account. Send E-mail to: <> with a subject: archive-server-request
and the command: get mail/country-codes in the body of your message.
ISO 3166 Codes + Top level doMAINs.
The link to some countries marked as being connected to Internet via UUCP or FIDO is often an expensive telephone dialup link. The people in those countries pay dearly for every byte of information sent to
them. It is therefore not advised to send an electronic mail to a remote node in such a country asking "how's the weather there". When it comes to money, people take things very seriously, especially since funds are scarce. It is a matter of net etiquette to keep this in mind. Junk mail sent to any node that has to pay a lot for its telephone connection will clearly be dealt with HARSHLY and evasive action may well be taken against those not respecting this notice.
Code Country Conn Notes Further information
AD Andorra
AE United Arab Emirates P Apparently dead
AF Afghanistan
AG Antigua and Barbuda *
AI Anguilla
AL Albania P
AM Armenia Ex-USSR
AN Netherland Antilles
AO Angola * gopher
AQ Antarctica FI *
AR Argentina FI B * Uni. de Buenos Aires <>
AS American Samoa
AT Austria FI B * gopher
AU Australia FI *
AW Aruba
AZ Azerbaidjan Ex-USSR
BA Bosnia-Herzegovina Ex-Yugoslavia
BB Barbados *
BD Bangladesh
BE Belgium FI B * gopher
BF Burkina Faso * gopher
BG Bulgaria FI B * Daniel Kalchev <>
BH Bahrain B * Gulfnet <postmaster@bhuob00.bitnet>
BI Burundi
BJ Benin
BM Bermuda * Tom Coelho <>
BN Brunei Darussalam
BO Bolivia * gopher
BR Brazil FI B * gopher
BS Bahamas *
BT Buthan
BV Bouvet Island
BW Botswana * gopher
BY Belarus * Ex-USSR
BZ Belize P
CA Canada FI B *
CC Cocos (Keeling) Isl.
CF Cal African Rep.
CG Congo * gopher
CH Switzerland FI B * gopher
CI Ivory Coast * gopher
CK Cook Islands
CL Chile FI B * gopher
CM Cameroon FI * in .fr doMAIN gopher
CN China PFI * <>
CO Colombia B * gopher
CR Costa Rica FI B * gopher
CS Czechoslovakia FI B * still works... gopher
CU Cuba * gopher
CV Cape Verde
CX Christmas Island
CY Cyprus B *
CZ Czech Republic FI * gopher
DE Germany FI B * gopher
DJ Djibouti
DK Denmark FI B * gopher
DM Dominica *
DO Dominican Republic P
DZ Algeria * <>
EC Ecuador FI B * gopher
EE Estonia FI * Juhan Poeldvere <>
EG Egypt FI B * gopher
EH Western Sahara
ES Spain FI B * gopher
ET Ethiopia F gopher
FI Finland FI B * gopher
FJ Fiji * <>
FK Falkland Isl.(Malvinas)
FM Micronesia
FO Faroe Islands P
FR France FI B *
FX France (European Ter.) ???
GA Gabon
GB Great Britain (UK) FI * X.400 & IP
GD Grenada P
GE Georgia * Ex-USSR
GF Guyana (Fr.) * gopher
GH Ghana F gopher
GI Gibraltar
GL Greenland
GM Gambia F gopher
GN Guinea
GP Guadeloupe (Fr.) * gopher
GQ Equatorial Guinea
GR Greece FI B * gopher
GT Guatemala *
GU Guam (US) FI *
GW Guinea Bissau
GY Guyana
HK Hong Kong FI B *
HM Heard & McDonald Isl.
HN Honduras *
HR Croatia FI * Ex-Yugo
HT Haiti P gopher
HU Hungary FI B * gopher
ID Indonesia * gopher
IE Ireland FI B * gopher
IL Israel FI B *
IN India FI B * gopher
IO British Indian O. Terr.
IQ Iraq
IR Iran B * Ali Shokoufandeh <ali@IREARN.BITNET>
Ebrahim Mashayekh <ebrahim@IREARN.BITNET>
Akbar Behzadi <akbar@IREARN.BITNET>
IS Iceland FI B * gopher
IT Italy FI B * gopher
JM Jamaica * gopher
JO Jordan
JP Japan FI B * gopher
KE Kenya * gopher
KG Kirgistan Ex-USSR
KH Cambodia
KI Kiribati
KM Comoros
KN St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla P
KP Korea (North) P
KR Korea (South) FI B *
KW Kuwait FI * No BITNET
KY Cayman Islands
KZ Kazachstan * Ex-USSR in .su doMAIN
LA Laos
LB Lebanon P gopher
LC Saint Lucia *
LI Liechtenstein PFI * gopher
LK Sri Lanka * Gihan Dias <>
LR Liberia
LS Lesotho * gopher
LT Lithuania PFI * Ex-USSR
LU Luxembourg FI B * gopher
LV Latvia FI * Ex-USSR
LY Libya
MA Morocco
MC Monaco
MD Moldavia Ex-USSR
MG Madagascar * gopher
MH Marshall Islands
ML Mali * gopher
MM Myanmar
MN Mongolia
MO Macau *
MP Northern Mariana Isl.
MQ Martinique (Fr.)
MR Mauritania
MS Montserrat
MT Malta P
MU Mauritius P gopher
MV Maldives
MW Malawi
MX Mexico FI B * gopher
MY Malaysia FI B *
MZ Mozambique * gopher
NA Namibia * gopher
NC New Caledonia (Fr.) * gopher
NE Niger * in .fr doMAIN gopher
NF Norfolk Island
NG Nigeria F gopher
NI Nicaragua * gopher
NL Netherlands FI B * gopher
NO Norway FI B * gopher
NP Nepal
NR Nauru
NT Neutral Zone
NU Niue
NZ New Zealand FI *
OM Oman
PA Panama B * gopher
PE Peru B * gopher
PF Polynesia (Fr.) * gopher
PG Papua New Guinea *
PH Philippines *
PK Pakistan * Imran Anwar <>
PL Poland FI B * gopher
PM St. Pierre & Miquelon
PN Pitcairn
PR Puerto Rico (US) FI B *
PT Portugal FI B * gopher
PW Palau
PY Paraguay *
QA Qatar
RE Reunion (Fr.) FI * In .fr doMAIN
RO Romania FI B *
RU Russian Federation P Ex-USSR
RW Rwanda F gopher
SA Saudi Arabia B * GulfNet gopher
SB Solomon Islands
SC Seychelles * gopher
SD Sudan
SE Sweden FI B * gopher
SG Singapore FI B * gopher
SH St. Helena
SI Slovenia FI * Ex-Yugos via .yu gopher
SJ Svalbard & Jan Mayen Is
SK Slovak Republic FI * gopher
SL Sierra Leone
SM San Marino
SN Senegal * gopher
SO Somalia
SR Suriname *
ST St. Tome and Principe
SU Soviet Union FI B * Still used. <>
SV El Salvador gopher
SY Syria
SZ Swaziland * gopher
TC Turks & Caicos Islands
TD Chad
TF French Southern Terr.
TG Togo * gopher
TH Thailand FI * gopher
TJ Tadjikistan Ex-USSR
TK Tokelau
TM Turkmenistan * Ex-USSR in .su doMAIN
TN Tunisia FI B * gopher
TO Tonga
TP East Timor
TR Turkey FI B * gopher
TT Trinidad & Tobago P
TV Tuvalu
TW Taiwan FI B * gopher
TZ Tanzania F gopher
UA Ukraine FI * UA Network Enq. <>
UG Uganda F gopher
UK United Kingdom FI B * ISO 3166 is GB telnet
UK Network Enq. <>
UM US Minor outlying Isl.
US United States FI * see note (4)
UY Uruguay B * gopher
UZ Uzbekistan Ex-USSR
VA Vatican City State
VC St.Vincent & Grenadines P
VE Venezuela FI *
VG Virgin Islands (British)
VI Virgin Islands (US) *
VN Vietnam *
VU Vanuatu * gopher
WF Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS Samoa
YE Yemen
YU Yugoslavia FI B * Bitnet is cut klepec.yunac.yu
ZA South Africa FI * gopher
ZM Zambia F gopher
ZR Zaire
ZW Zimbabwe * gopher
See Note [5] for the next top level doMAINs (
ARPA Old style Arpanet * alias still works
COM Commercial FI * telnet
EDU Educational FI B * telnet
GOV Government FI * telnet
INT International field FI * used by Nato
MIL US Military FI *
NATO Nato field * soon to be deleted
NET Network FI * telnet
ORG Non-Profit Organization
FI * telnet
Disclaimer: While every effort is made to provide accurate information, this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could be pointed out to me and they would be corrected in the next release. The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed. Affiliation to Imperial College is given for identification purposes only.
Copyright 1995-2003 © Gordon Phillip ALLEN REALTORS®. All rights reserved.
Do not duplicate or distribute in any form.